This pattern is reflected primarily by the adoption of additional programs and new provisions designed to raise benefit levels, provide flexibility in retirement practices, expand coverage, and cope with demographic changes, inflationary trends, and growing costs.
The new measures tend to extend the role of social security programs through providing a greater proportion of the population with more comprehensive protection and setting higher benefit rates to replace income lost because of old age, disability, sickness, work injury, unemployment, or death.
The reaction of anaphylaxia with desensibilization on guinea pigs and the method of double diffusion in agar gel were used to study the antigenic composition of the rat skeletal muscles 3, 7 and 30 days after their cross sections were connected with polyurethane glue and silk.
It is shown that in the postoperative period, besides antigens similar to those of the normal muscles, other antigens which may belong to stage-specific ones appears in the fraction of soluble proteins.
The antigenic composition of the skeletal muscles is the same with both methods of connection of the tissues defects. The radioisotopic method of 131J-labelled albumin was employed to determine the distribution of acidic proteinase activity in some organs and tissues of chickens. The highest enzymatic activities were found in intestine wall, in pancreas, and in liver. Considerably lower activities were ascertained in kidneys, brain, lungs, and heart. The different proportions of these enzymes in homogenates and supernatant fractions (106 000 g) testify to a lack of uniformity in the solubility of cathepsins in the organs tested. The tested organs, with the exception of pancreas, did not show any enzymatic activity of neutral proteinases. Histologically were investigated 37 cases of neoplastic growths and 2 cases of hyperplasia in canine sebaceous glands.
From this number 24 tumours of circumanal glands (20 adenomas and 4 carcinomas) and 13 tumours of sebaceous glands in extraanal localization were found. In the neoplastic tissue of circumanal adenomas three differentiation degrees of sebaceous cells were identified. Biological behaviour is favourable, tumours destructured the tissue only topically.
Malignant neoplasias consisted of tumorously proliferated, lowly differentiated sebaceous cells. Tumours observed in the ear and external ear canal are histologically similar to human cutaneous sebaceous gland adenomas and therefore from the viewpoint of comparative oncology they are important.
In therapy, surgical extirpation is applied with possible estrogen combination. The influence exerted by the composition of intravenously introduced mixture of amino acids on so-called urea increment, i.e. the difference between the urea concentration in the blood on an empty stomach an on termination of its introduction, was studied in tests on adult mongrel male-dogs.
On the other hand, upon introduction of an amino acids mixture imitating the Swedish preparation Vamin, which includes all essential and non-essential amino acids (except for glutamine and asparagine) in proportion as found in the egg white the urea increment values turned out to be inferior than on administration of a mixture containing from among essential amino acids only arginine and histidine, and from among non-essential ones-glycine and glutamic acid. The urea increment was also lower following combined introduction of an amino acids mixture together with an energy-producing (calorific) material, than when the latter was fed on prior to introduction of the mixture.
The totality of findings suggests that as to its sensitivity to the composition of the parenterally introduced nutritional mixture and, possibly, dietary regimen-the urea increment is in no way inferior to the cumbersome, and difficulty realizable under clinical conditions method of nitrogen balance as a criterion for the efficacy of parenteral nutrition and deserves a detailed study as regards its clinical application. In a synopsis theoretical and experimental problems of the parenteral nutrition are discussed.